In today's world, the scientific and technological revolution is progressing rapidly with great momentum, economic globalization is gaining strength, and competition to enhance overall national strength is becoming fiercer. The years of 2001 to 2010 will be an extremely important period for China's economic and social development. To promote the drive towards socialist modernization and achieve overall economic and social advancement, we must view improving the quality of the people and tapping human resources as a strategic task, and must train and cultivate highly qualified personnel fitting to the needs of the 21st century, beginning with children.
Childhood is the critical period for physiological and psychological development. Provision for the growth of the child and her or his necessary protection, care and proper education will lay a sound foundation for the development of the whole life of the child.
In 1992, in reference to the global objectives and the Convention on the Rights of the Child put forward at the World Summit for Children, China, in line with her own national situation, promulgated the National Programme of Action for Child Development in China in the 1990s. This was the first national plan of action that centered on the child and on promotion of child development. Governments at different levels, and the related departments, have adhered to the principle of "children first", strengthened leadership and responsibility, formulated policies and adopted measures to seriously implement the Programme of Action. The work for survival, protection and development of the child has made historical progress and the major objectives set in the National Programme of Action for Child Development in China in the 1990s have basically been attained:
--The mortality rate of infants and children under-five have decreased from 51 per thousand and 61 per thousand in the early 1990s to 32.2 per thousand and 39.7 per thousand in the year 2000 respectively;
--The maternal mortality rate has dropped from 94.7 per 100 thousand in 1989 to 53.0 per 100 thousand in 2000;
--The rate of underweight children under five has been reduced from 21 percent in 1990 to 10 percent;
--Adding iodine to salt has been basically achieved for all;
--Child immunization rate has reached above 90 percent at the county level; the goal of eradication of poliomyelitis has been achieved;
--Rate of improved access to safe drinking water and sanitary latrines in rural areas has reached 92.38 percent and 44.84 percent respectively in 2000;
--Net enrolment rate of primary school-age children has risen from 96.3 percent in 1990 to 99.1 percent in 2000. Enrolment disparities between boys and girls have been reduced from 2.91 percentage points in 1990 to 0.07 percentage points in 2000. The five-year retention rate of pupils in primary schools has increased from 71.4 percent in 1990 to 94.5 percent in 2000. Nine-year compulsory education has been established, covering 85 percent of the population throughout the country;
--The illiteracy rate among young and middle-aged people has been reduced to less than 5 percent in the year 2000.
Nevertheless, as a developing country with a large population, we still face numerous problems and challenges, in that the general standard of child development needs to continue to be enhanced, and the environment for child development requires further improvement. Marked disparities among different regions and between urban and rural areas remain in the conditions and levels of survival, protection and development of children. Poverty has not been eradicated yet and several millions of children still live in poverty. Along with the increase of the "floating population" of temporary migrant workers, increase of township urbanization and the movement of the rural population, the health, education and protection of the rights of children among this group of people demand prompt solutions. The number of children among HIV-infected people and AIDS patients appears to be rising, and illegal criminal acts infringing upon children's rights and interests occur occasionally. Therefore, to improve the environment of survival, protection and development for children and to promote their healthy growth remains a major task before us in the coming years.
In light of the outline of the Tenth Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development of the PRC and in accordance with the actual situation of child development in China, the National Programme of Action for Child Development in China (2001-2010) (referred to as NPA below) is formulated. The NPA makes child development the central theme, improvement of physical and psychological quality of the child the focal point, and training and nurturing talented persons for the 21st century of the socialist modernization drive the objective. The NPA also puts forward targets and strategic measures for the first ten-year child development plan of the 21st century, proceeding from four main areas: child and health; child and education; child and legal protection; and child and environment. The promulgation and implementation of the National Programme of Action for Child Development in China (2001-2010) will further promote the healthy growth of children and the sustained development of children's cause.
Adhere to the principle of "children first", safeguard children's rights to survival, development, protection and participation, improve the general quality of the children and promote their healthy development both physically and mentally. Reach the advanced level of developing countries in major indexes of child health; popularize senior high school education gradually in big and medium-sized cities and in economically developed areas on the basis of having virtually made nine-year compulsory education universal; improve the legal system of the protection of children and safeguard children's rights and interests according to the law; optimize the environment for the growth of children and enable those children in difficult circumstances receive special protection.
1. Child and Health
Improve health-care services for all children and upgrade children's health level.
(1) Raise the quality of newly born babies
--Increase the rate of pre-marital medical check-up to 80 percent in urban areas and 50 percent in rural areas.
--Reduce the incidence of congenital anomalies.
(2) Ensure safe deliveries
--Reduce maternal mortality rate by 1/4 on the 2000 year level.
--Increase the rate of hospital deliveries for pregnant women of rural areas to 65 percent, and pregnant women in high risk, over 90 percent. Rate of sterilized deliveries in rural are to reach over 95 percent.
--Reduce iron-deficiency anemia rate of pregnant and lactating women by 1/3 on the 2000 year level.
--Reach the ratio of health care for pregnant and puerperal women over 90 percent in urban areas and over 60 percent in rural areas.
(3) Diminish mortality rate of infants and children under-five
--Decrease mortality rate of infants and children under-five by 1/5 respectively on the 2000 year level.
--Diminish mortality rate of asphyxia among newborn babies and the mortality rate of pneumonia, diarrhea and other major death reasons among children under five.
--Reduce the incidence of tetanus among newborn babies by less than 1 per thousand on the county level.
--Increase immunization inoculation over 90 percent at the township level. Integrate vaccination of hepatitis B into the planned immunization and gradually include new immunization inoculation into the management of the planned immunization.
(4) Raise the nutrition level of children and strengthen their physique
--Reduce the rate of moderate and severe malnutrition of children under 5 years of age by 1/4 on the level of 2000.
--Control the occurrence rate of low birth-weight to below 5 percent.
--Increase the rate of scientific feeding for parents with infants and children to over 85 percent.
--Raise the breast-feeding rate to 85 percent at the provincial, municipal and autonomous region level. Ensure to add supplementary food timely and rationally.
--Diminish children's vitamin A deficiency.
--Increase the edible rate of qualified iodine added salt to over 90 percent.
--Raise the coverage rate of child health care to more than 90 percent in urban areas and over 60 percent in rural areas. And gradually raise the coverage rate of health care for the girl-child and children among the floating population.
--Increase the qualified rate of middle and primary students achieving the State Physical Exercise Standard to over 90 percent.
(5) Strengthen the education on child health care
--Decrease the number of smoking among minors and prevent them from drug addiction.
--Prevent and control the spread and growth of VD, AIDS and tuberculosis.
--Provide all forms of counseling on children's psychological health care and services of correcting unhealthy mentality.
Strategies and Measures
(1) State macro-policies
Create a better environment for children, enabling them enjoy the highest attainable standard of health services.
--Deepen the medical reform and make efforts to realize the major objectives on child health care.
--Make equitable arrangements and increase financial input for the basic medical services of MCH and prevention and control of diseases.
--Strengthen education, training and publicity on MCH knowledge.
(2) Laws and sectoral policies
Improve and enact laws, regulations, policies and measures on MCH.
--Conscientiously carry out the Law of the People's Republic of China on Maternal and Infant Health Care and other relevant laws and regulations and strengthen supervision and law enforcement.
--Undertake community health-care services, strengthen the construction of rural health-care network and services of standardization. Ensure the provision of health care to pregnant and puerperal women and children and also the provision of basic health-care services of monitoring children's growth and development, planned immunization and treatment of common diseases among children.
--Develop women's reproductive health-care services in an all round way, improve pre-natal, child delivery period and post-natal health-care services for pregnant women and women in labor. Continuously implement the "Mother Safety Project" in urban and rural areas, especially in villages, and carry out screening of pregnant women in high risks. Increase the hospital delivery rate of pregnant women, create necessary conditions for safe deliveries and lower the maternal mortality rate.
--Take vigorous actions to prevent and cure frequent occurring and common diseases among children. Pay attention to the health care work of children's eyes, oral cavity and hearing.
--Strengthen the development of freezing system in order to reinforce the effectiveness of common immunization. Gradually increase the varieties of vaccinations and preventive injections reach the safety standard.
--Advocate scientific way of feeding and good diet habits to improve the condition of child nutrition. Support breast-feeding. Do a good job in the intervention work of vitamin A deficiency among children in poverty- stricken and vitamin A deficiency areas. Encourage primary school pupils and middle school students to drink livestock milk. Take steps to implement the State Plan of "Milk Drinking Plan for Students" and promote the "State Soya Bean Plan of Action". Popularize the "nutritious meal" for students in a planned way to reduce the rate of malnutrition or overfeeding.
--Strengthen theoretical research and popularization technology on child health care. Continuously promote and apply technologies of planned immunization, ORT, the work of comprehensive management over children's diseases, scientific way of feeding infants and children, adding iodine to edible salt and monitoring the growth and development of children. Research on preventive measures to diminish diseases among newborn babies, malnutrition and accidental injuries among children.
--Carry out extensively publicity work on education and popularization of science to enhance women and children's capabilities of self-health care and utilization of health care facilities. Advocate a scientific, civilized and healthy life style. Conduct an educational work about the harm of venereal diseases and AIDS and knowledge on prevention and self-protection. Put further emphasis on puberty education among adolescents and education on prevention of smoking and drug addiction.
(3) Social insurance and services
Further develop the medical insurance system and guarantee children's access to basic medical and health care services.
--Complete the rural primary health care service system, develop medical cooperatives as well as the health care insurance system of various forms according to local conditions in order to ensure children's access to health care and improve their ability to withstand disease risks.
--Establish disease-aid funds for poor families through various channels and help pregnant and puerperal women and children from especially poor families receive necessary medical care. Work hard to provide medical aid to abandoned infants and orphans. Ensure that health care management is to gradually reach the pregnant and puerperal women and children among the floating population.
--Pay attention to physical education of children. Ensure the provision of necessary sport facilities to all children by communities and townships where conditions allow. Cultivate the child to foster a good habit of doing physical exercises and guarantee the middle and primary school students and pupils to have one hour of sports activities every day.
--Put emphasis on popularizing knowledge on child mental health care. Set up psychological guidance classes in schools; gradually establish institutions of psychological consultant and corrective services in big and medium-sized cities and in places where conditions allow.
2. Child and Education
Ensure the right of children to education and raise their educational level.
(1) Popularize nine-year compulsory education in an all-round way and make sure that all children receive education.
--Raise the enrolment rate of primary school-age children to about 99 percent and the five-year retention rate, around 95 percent.
--Reach the gross enrolment rate of students in junior middle schools to about 95 percent.
--Develop special education.
--Guarantee children among the floating population to basically receive nine-year compulsory education.
(2) Ensure that school-age children basically receive pre-school education.
--Develop early education for children of 0 to 3 years of age.
--Make sure that school-age children from big and medium-sized cities and from economically developed areas basically receive three years of pre-school education and a fairly high increase in the rate of rural children receiving one year pre-school education.
(3) Take steps to popularize senior middle school education
--Increase the gross enrolment rate of students in senior middle schools to over 80 percent. Popularize senior middle school education in big and medium-sized cities and in economically advanced areas.
(4) Increase the quality and efficiency of education
--Develop a system of modernized basic education curriculum as required by the 21st century.
--Reform the examination and evaluation system.
(5) Raise the level of family education
--Establish a pluralistic way of running parents' schools. Increase the number of parents' schools of various kinds.
--Increase the rate of family education know-how among parents.
Strategies and Measures
(1) State macro-policies
Implement the strategies of giving priority to education and take the improvement of the overall quality of the child as the basic strategy of talented people.
--Ensure that education adapts with the national economy and social development and to speed-up the development moderately.
--Put educational resources to rational disposition, narrow the disparities between regions and provide equal opportunities and conditions for all children receiving education. Guarantee the fairness and justice in education, especially in compulsory education.
--Improve mechanisms of educational input and increase educational investments.
(2) Laws and sectoral policies
Improve and implement laws, regulations and policies on education.
--Accelerate a step further the legislation on education and improve the educational law system.
--Take further actions to enforce laws on education, complete the educational monitoring institutions and system. Raise the whole society's awareness on legal education and level of legal knowledge and actively govern the education according to law.
--Implement comprehensively the state educational policies and promote quality education as a whole to enable students to develop morally, intellectually, physically and aesthetically in an all round way. Pay attention to the cultivation of enterprising awareness and scientific spirit of students and their capability of practice.
--Continue to reduce the study burden of primary and middle school students. Organize students to participate in social practice and public welfare activities and improve their ability in social practice. Include the construction of comprehensive practice bases of middle and primary schools into the local development plans.
--Integrate gender equality awareness into the contents of education.
--Implement the "State Compulsory Education Project in Poverty-Stricken Areas", "Project on Educational Development in Western Region", "Hope Project", "Spring Bud Plan" and other projects supporting education. Guarantee the rights of children from poor and ethnic minority areas to receive education.
--Ensure in real earnest the girls' right to education and eliminate obstacles hindering girls entering school.
--Take effective actions to guarantee the right of children with disabilities, orphans and children of the floating population to education and enable children with disabilities receive compulsory education in phase with other children. Implement the preferential policies of education for orphans and perfect the schooling system for children of the floating population. Work out educational plans in accordance with the state urbanization program to meet the needs of the school-age children of rural areas to go to school after moving to urban areas.
--Develop pre-school education. Establish and strengthen the management system on education for 0-3 year old children. Make equitable plans and run well exemplary kindergartens run by educational departments. At the same time, encourage the society to develop all forms of child education through various channels. Actively explore all kinds of informal education to satisfy the needs of children from remote, poor and ethnic minority areas to receive pre-school education.
--Implement the "Project on Educational Information", promote the popularization of education on computers and information technology in middle and primary schools. Develop a modernized long-ranged educational network and bring into play the function of satellite television education in order to meet the educational needs of remote mountainous areas and islands.
--Raise the overall quality of teachers. Enhance the qualified rate and record of formal schooling of teachers and pay attention to on-job training and continuing education for principals and teachers of middle and primary schools. Strengthen the building-up of teachers' virtue.
--Encourage teachers and staff of schools, kindergartens and nurseries to love, respect children and safeguard their personal dignity and exercise no discrimination against children. Physical or corporal punishments in disguised forms towards children are prohibited. Schools are not allowed to expel students randomly. Ensure that school disciplines and educational methods shall be administered in a manner consistent with the physical and mental characteristics of students.
--Give full play to the educational superiority of schools, families and society and fully utilize social resources to form an educational joint effort in promoting the integration of school, family and social education.
--Lay stress on and improve family education. Popularize knowledge on family education and strengthen the theoretical research. Run well different forms of parents' schools to help parents establish a correct view on child-care and education and encourage them to master the methods and knowledge of education in a scientific way.
3. Child and Legal Protection
Improve and implement laws and regulations and safeguard the rights and interests of children according to the law.
(1) Safeguard children's rights to survival, protection, development and participation in accordance with the law.
(2) Crack down on illegal criminal acts of infringement upon the legal rights and interests of children.
--Bring under control and decrease all kinds of criminal cases that infringe on the personal right of the child.
--Prohibit maltreatment, infanticide and abandonment of children, especially of girl infants, sick children and children with disabilities.
--Prohibit hiring child labors (under 16 years of age) and protect them from economic exploitation.
(3) Prevent and control crimes committed by minors
--Control the criminal rate of minors and reduce the recurrence rate.
--Publicize knowledge on legal education in middle and primary schools.
(4) Safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of minors in accordance with the law in lawsuits
--Guarantee that minors exercise their litigation and defense rights.
--Set up juvenile courts inside of courts at the grassroots level. Criminal cases of minors and cases relating to minors are not to be tried in public, or an appropriate avoiding system shall be adopted.
(5) Establish legal assistant institutions for children and provide them with legal support.
Strategies and Measures
(1) Legislation and law enforcement
Improve legislation concerning children, strengthen law enforcement and protect effectively the rights of children.
--Improve laws and regulations on the protection of the rights and interests of children and set up and enhance monitoring mechanisms of law enforcement. Earnestly implement laws and regulations, such as the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Minors, Law on the Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency, Law on Adoption and the Convention on the Rights of the Child.
--Mete out sever punishment to crimes of murder, rape, destruction, maltreatment, abduction, trafficking, kidnapping and abandonment that infringe upon the personal rights of the child and crimes of luring, instigating or forcing juveniles to commit a crime. Take actions to protect children from all forms of sexual abuse and strictly forbid making use of children for producing and trafficking drugs.
--Strengthen the management and supervision of hiring labor power in enterprises and timely detect, investigate and deal with the problems of child labor.
(2) Judicial protection
Put into effects the principle of judicial protection when dealing with juvenile delinquents.
--Pursue a policy of educating, helping and redeeming juvenile delinquents and uphold the principle of putting education first and punishment subsidiary.
--Encourage public security organs, courts and prosecution services to coordinate with one another in the process of investigation, suing and trial of juvenile delinquent cases and give juvenile suspects and defendants a special treatment different from that of adults. While executing penalties, juvenile offenders should be detained, regulated and educated separately from adult criminals.
--Exercise no discrimination against juveniles not being prosecuted by the prosecution services, exempted by the courts from criminal sanction penalty or announced probation, and being released from reformatory or after serving a sentence, when they go back to school, enter a higher school and look for jobs.
(3) Law dissemination and services
Mobilize the whole society to pay close attention to the protection of children's rights through publicity and education and ensure the provision of legal services to all children.
--Disseminate and popularize legal knowledge on child protection and enhance the awareness on protecting the legal rights and interests of children in the whole society. Encourage relevant departments, social sectors, schools and families to closely work together in order to make a joint effort in the field of child protection.
--Intensify training on child-related laws and protection of children's rights and interests for law enforcement officials and judicial officials so as to improve their competence in handling cases and their law enforcement level.
--Educate parents and other guardians of children to exercise their legal guardianship and their responsibilities and duties of upbringing children. Forbid domestic violence against children and any other forms of maltreatment on children's physics and mentality. Forbid forced marriage or engagement for minors.
--Intensify the education on discipline, legality and safety to children and improve their legal sense and ability of self-protection.
--Make no public the true names and identity of juveniles when mass media reports on juvenile delinquent cases.
--Set up networks of protecting the rights and interests of children and prevent the occurrence of any acts infringing on children's legal rights and interests. Timely correct unhealthy behavior of minors and prevent and reduce criminal cases committed by minors. Do a good job in educating and redeeming minors who broke the law and committed a crime and work hard to help those infringed minors rehabilitate their physical and mental health and return to the society.
--Actively set up legal aid organs facing children, and improve the legal aid system and network to provide children with various legal assistant services.
4. Child and Environment
Improve the environment for children's survival and development, respect and encourage the active participation of children.
(1) Improve the natural environment for the survival of children
--Raise the beneficiary rate of supplying safe drinking water for lack of water rural areas. Increase the rate of improving water supply facilities and of popularizing tap water supply in rural areas.
--Raise the coverage rate of sanitary latrines in rural areas.
--Guarantee that the air and water in different functional areas of cities is to reach basically the national environmental protection standards. Raise the rate of refuse disposal by non-hazardous means and concentrated sewage treatment in urban areas.
--Increase the area of forest and green land.
(2) Better the social environment for child development
--Respect and take good care of children and protect them from all forms of discrimination and harmfulness.
--Provide necessary leisure and entertaining time for children and guarantee their rights to participate in family, social and cultural life.
--Improve children's quality of food, toys, utensils and recreation facilities and guarantee these products are safety and harmless.
--Provide all children with healthy intellectual products and purify the cultural environment for the growth and development of children.
--Ensure that the media spreads social and cultural information beneficial to the healthy growth of children and protects them from influence of negative information.
--Create a good family environment for the healthy growth of the child.
--Increase after-school activity centers and facilities of education, science and technology, culture, sports and entertainment for children in communities. Over 90 per cent of counties (cities) should each have at least one after-school activity center.
(3) Protect children in difficult circumstances
--Increase the recovery rate of children with disabilities.
--Improve the situation of supply, education and medical rehabilitation for orphans and abandoned infants.
--Set up a child welfare institute in every city/ prefecture with facilities of supporting, protection, medical rehabilitation and education.
Strategies and Measures
(1) State macro-policies
Reflect the principle of "children first" and contribute to child development when the state formulates its related laws, decrees, policies and regulations.
--Create a sound social environment to respect, love and educate children and guarantee their right to participation.
--Integrate child development programs into the overall plan of national economic and social development and increase financial input for child undertakings.
--Encourage children to actively participate in family, cultural and social life and foster to become a new generation with high ideals, moral standard, good education and a strong sense of discipline.
--Set up and improve the social security system for children.
--Pay close attention to girls and children in special difficulties, and ensure that they have equal opportunities of enjoying the healthy growth and participation in development.
--Expand international exchanges and cooperation in the field of child work and take an active part in global and regional exchanges and research.
(2) Laws and sectoral policies
Perfect and implement relevant laws, decrees, regulations and policies beneficial to the survival, protection and development of children.
--Strengthen ecological construction, improve environmental protection and management in accordance with the law. Plant trees and increase the area of forest, bring under control the pollution of air, water, solid waste, noise as well as industrial and living waste and rural water source pollution, and protect the source of drinking water. In rural areas, lay stress on the reconstruction of drinking water supply facilities and sanitary latrines to promote environmental sanitation renovation. Enhance technical guidance and services on building sanitary latrines and the harmless disposal of the excrement of human and livestock. Promote rearing fowls and livestock in pens. All above will help create a good natural environment for the healthy growth of children.
--Enhance the supervision and management of production and marketing of children's food, daily necessities, toys and recreational facilities, and improve the work of standard of examination and the quality authentication. Strengthen the management of public facilities and safe supervision, disseminate knowledge on safety so as to raise the sense of safety of children and their parents and reduce accidental injuries among children. Encourage enterprises, while doing their business, to uphold the principle of benefiting the child and support child development undertakings.
--Encourage the mass media to create a sound public opinion environment to benefit the healthy growth of the child and also encourage the creation of excellent books, movies, songs, dances, drama and art works. Advocate the healthy and progressive child images to enrich the cultural life of children. Exercise standardized regulations on cultural market and crack down on illegal publications. Intensify the inspection and supervision of the sites and businesses around schools. Prohibit any mass media from spreading information of pornography and violence and other information that harms the physical and mental health of children and reduce the negative influence on children.
--Carry out vigorously activities of establishing model families, enhance the building-up of family morals and advocate an equal, civilized, harmonious and stable family relationship, thus creating a good family environment for the healthy growth and development of the child.
--Increase out-of-school activity facilities and centers for children and embody the establishment of out-of-school facilities of education, culture, science and technology, sports, and recreation into the construction plans of cities and towns. Raise fund through various possible channels and lay stress on supporting the establishment of activity centers for adolescents in central and western regions. Strengthen the community work on children's services, management and education and the construction of children's scientific and cultural centers in rural areas. Intensify the administration over all kinds of children's activity centers and promote their social benefits. Open gradually all activity facilities of social public welfare to children with free of charge.
(3) Social security and services
Improve social security system and promote the survival and development of children in difficulties
--Provide better conditions for the healthy growth of orphans, children with disabilities and abandoned infants through increasing the input for child welfare undertakings and improving facilities and services. Advocate the socialization of child welfare and take vigorous actions to explore ways and means of support that well suit the mental and physical development of orphans and children with disabilities.
--Strengthen the establishment and management of succoring and protection centers for street children. Set up various forms of institutions of accepting and educating the street children in order to reduce the number of street children and prevent their relapse.
--Strengthen the construction of formal rehabilitation institutions for children with disabilities, develop community rehabilitation and health care service organs, and give training and guidance to parents who have children with disabilities on knowledge of rehabilitation.
Organization and Implementation
1. The National Working Committee for Women and Children (NWCCW) under the State Council is responsible for the organization of the implementation of NPA. All relevant departments under the State Council and social organizations should formulate their implementation measures in accordance with NPA and their respective responsibilities.
2. Local governments at all levels should, according to their actual local conditions, formulate and integrate their programs for child development in their localities into their plans for local economic and social development. They should seek to ensure a unified and coordinated arrangement and include the implementation of NPA into their agenda and into the appraisal of achievements made by their main leaders and responsible persons at their posts.
3. Mechanisms for the implementation of NPA should be set up and strengthened. All relevant departments under the State Council and social organizations are required to report their implementation of NPA to NWCCW on a yearly basis. All local working committees for women and children should put in place their respective corresponding work and reporting systems. Research should be strengthened, and classified guidance and advance demonstrations should be developed and applied, as ways of work. The implementation of NPA should be followed timely, and successful practices should be summed up and be spread out. Theoretic dimension in child studies should be emphasized.
4. Governments at all levels should make proper arrangement of funds needed for the implementation of NPA according to their financial capacity. Various channels should be explored in fund-raising, and major efforts should be geared towards child development and advancement in poverty-stricken areas and areas inhabited by ethnic groups.
Monitoring and Evaluation
1. The implementation of NPA will be monitored and evaluated at several levels. Comprehensive statistics about child development will be enhanced, sex-disaggregated indicators be increased, and a sex-disaggregated data base be built and strengthened. Efforts will be made to ensure the collection, processing, feedback and exchange of the information on the implementation of NPA. The situation of child development and its trends will be analyzed, and the results of the implementation of NPA will be evaluated, with a view to providing basis for the formulation of further programs and for further decision-making.
2. Systems for monitoring of the situation of the child will be established at the national and provincial levels, with practical, feasible, scientific and standard programs for monitoring and evaluation, to ensure a comprehensive and dynamic monitoring of child development. The statistical indicators disaggregated by sex designed for NPA will be included in the state statistical system and in the routine statistics and statistical surveys undertaken by all other relevant departments. Institutions for labor supervision, public health monitoring, educational guidance, statistics evaluation and legal supervision will be set up and reinforced, and mechanisms for monitoring will be improved, to ensure an effective implementation of NPA.
3. There will be a regular reporting and evaluation system. All government departments and social organizations that are members of NWCCW and all other relevant departments are required to submit their reports on data obtained from monitoring and on the implementation of the major objectives on a yearly basis to the NWCCW Office and the National Bureau of Statistics. All reported data obtained from monitoring will be analyzed, and the implementation of NPA will be evaluated. At the national level, monitoring and evaluations will be undertaken on a yearly, an every three-to-five-year periodic and a ten-year end-term basis.
4. Institutions for monitoring and evaluation will be set up. A leading group for monitoring and evaluation will be organized by NWCCW, responsible for the approval of programs for monitoring and evaluation, and for the formulation of countermeasures accordingly.
Under the leading group for monitoring and evaluation, there will be two task forces, one for statistics and monitoring and the other for evaluation.
The task force for statistics and monitoring, composed of relevant departments, with the National Bureau of Statistics taking the lead, has the following responsibilities: to establish a system of statistical indicators disaggregated by sex for monitoring the implementation of NPA, bring forward key indicators to be monitored; identify monitoring methods; collect data from monitoring, set up a sex-disaggregated data base and work to strengthen it; submit to NWCCW a report on statistics and monitoring of the situation of the child throughout the country; and to guide all localities and areas in their work of statistics and monitoring.
The task force for evaluation, with NWCCW Office taking the lead, is composed of experts recommended by relevant departments. It has the following responsibilities: to formulate programs for inspection and monitoring; evaluate the reports on monitoring, put forward opinions and recommendations to address major and difficult issues; undertake periodic evaluation and submit evaluation reports to NWCCW; and to guide all localities and areas in their supervision and evaluation of the implementation of NPA.
Corresponding institutions and system for supervision and evaluation should also be established in all localities and areas, to ensure a timely, accurate and all-round reflection of the implementation of NPA and local programs for child development.
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